Papers

Papers

Possibility of continuous source fuzzy extractors

Lowen and I just received word of acceptance of our recent work to ISIT.  This papers asks whether you can build a universal fuzzy extractor for all high fuzzy min-entropy distributions.  That is, can we have one construction that always just works.  Unfortunately, the answer is negative.  It is possible to artificially construct families of distributions that are impossible to simultaneously secure.  This paper shares a lot of techniques with prior work of myself, Reyzin, and Smith.  Excited to talk about these techniques more with the information theory community!

DOCSDN: Dynamic and Optimal Configuration of Software-Defined Networks

New work on finding good network configurations with Tim, Devon, and Laurent.  This will appear this year at ACISP.

Abstract—Networks are designed with functionality, security, performance, and cost in mind. Tools exist to check or optimize individual properties of a network. These properties may conflict, so it is not always possible to run these tools in series to find a configuration that meets all requirements. This leads to network administrators manually searching for a configuration.

This need not be the case. In this paper, we introduce a layered framework for optimizing network configuration for functional and security requirements. Our framework is able to output configurations that meet reachability, bandwidth, and risk requirements. Each layer of our framework optimizes over a single property. A lower layer can constrain the search problem of a higher layer allowing the framework to converge on a joint solution.

Our approach has the most promise for software-defined networks which can easily reconfigure their logical configuration. Our approach is validated with experiments over the fat tree topology, which is commonly used in data center networks. Search terminates in between 1-5 minutes in experiments. Thus, our solution can propose new configurations for short term events such as defending against a focused network attack.

Iris Segmentation using CNNs

Sohaib (who’s awesome!) just gave his first presentation on performing iris segmentation using fully convolutional neural nets. The paper was published at AMV 2018 which is a workshop at ACCV.

AbstractThe extraction of consistent and identifiable features from an image of the human iris is known as iris recognition. Identifying which pixels belong to the iris, known as segmentation, is the first stage of iris recognition. Errors in segmentation propagate to later stages. Current segmentation approaches are tuned to specific environments. We propose using a convolution neural network for iris segmentation. Our algorithm is accurate when trained in a single environment and tested in multiple environments. Our network builds on the Mask R-CNN framework (He et al., ICCV 2017). Our approach segments faster than previous approaches including the Mask R-CNN network. Our network is accurate when trained on a single environment and tested with a different sensors (either visible light or near-infrared). Its accuracy degrades when trained with a visible light sensor and tested with a near-infrared sensor (and vice versa). A small amount of retraining of the visible light model (using a few samples from a near-infrared dataset) yields a tuned network accurate in both settings. For training and testing, this work uses the Casia v4 Interval, Notre Dame 0405, Ubiris v2, and IITD datasets.

Non-malleable digital Lockers

This is a paper I’m very excited about with Peter Fenteany, a great undergrad at UConn.

Abstract: An obfuscated program reveals nothing about its design other than its input/output behavior. A digital locker is an obfuscated program that outputs a stored cryptographic key if and only if a user enters a previously stored password. A digital locker is private if it provides an adversary with no information with high probability. An ideal digital locker would also prevent an adversary from mauling an obfuscation on one password and key into a new program that obfuscates a related password or key. Such a primitive is achievable in the random oracle model. Komargodski and Yogev (Eurocrypt, 2018) constructed a simpler primitive: a non-malleable point function which is a digital locker with no key.

This work describes the first non-malleable digital locker. This construction is built in two main steps:

  1. Constructing non-malleable digital lockers for short keys. We present one construction for a single bit key and a second for a logarithmic length keys. These constructions can be safely composed with the same input password. This composed construction is non-malleable with respect to the password. Security relies on variants of the strong and power DDH assumptions.
  2. An extension to polynomial length keys that additionally provides nonmalleability over the stored key. This extension combines the digital locker for short keys and non-malleable codes, and seed- dependent condensers. Our use of seed-dependent condensers require the password distribution to be efficient sampleable. The seed condenser must be public and random but programmability is not required.

Nonmalleability for the password is ensured for functions that can be represented as low degree polynomials. Key nonmalleability is ensured for the class of functions prevented by the non-malleable code.

FPGA Implementation of a Cryptographically-Secure PUF Based on Learning Parity with Noise

Published in MDPI Cryptography

Joint Work with Chenglu, Charles, Ling, Ha, Srini, and Marten.

Abstract: Herder et al. (IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 2017) designed a new computational fuzzy extractor and physical unclonable function (PUF) challenge-response protocol based on the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem. The protocol requires no irreversible state updates on the PUFs for security, like burning irreversible fuses, and can correct for significant measurement noise when compared to PUFs using a conventional (information theoretical secure) fuzzy extractor. However, Herder et al. did not implement their protocol. In this paper, we give the first implementation of a challenge response protocol based on computational fuzzy extractors. Our main insight is that “confidence information” does not need to be kept private, if the noise vector is independent of the confidence information, e.g., the bits generated by ring oscillator pairs which are physically placed close to each other. This leads to a construction which is a simplified version of the design of Herder et al. (also building on a ring oscillator PUF). Our simplifications allow for a dramatic reduction in area by making a mild security assumption on ring oscillator physical obfuscated key output bits.

Reusable Authentication from the Iris

I’m super excited to put out my first paper written solely with UConn students.  James and Sailesh have put a ton of work into this.  We build a full key derivation system from the human iris by integrating image processing and the crypto described in our previous paper.  I’m particularly excited because I started working on this problem in graduate school and it felt like we’d never get to an actual implementation.

Abstract: Mobile platforms use biometrics for authentication. Unfortunately, biometrics exhibit noise between repeated readings. Due to the noise, biometrics are stored in plaintext, so device compromise completely reveals the user’s biometric value.

To limit privacy violations, one can use fuzzy extractors to derive a stable cryptographic key from biometrics (Dodis et al., Eurocrypt 2004). Unfortunately, fuzzy extractors have not seen wide deployment due to insufficient security guarantees. Current fuzzy extractors provide no security for real biometric sources and no security if a user enrolls the same biometric with multiple devices or providers.

Previous work claims key derivation systems from the iris but only under weak adversary models. In particular, no known construction securely handles the case of multiple enrollments. Canetti et al. (Eurocrypt 2016) proposed a new fuzzy extractor called sample-then-lock.

We construct biometric key derivation for the iris starting from sample-then-lock. Achieving satisfactory parameters requires modifying and coupling of the image processing and the cryptography. Our construction is implemented in Python and being open-sourced. Our system has the following novel features:

— 45 bits of security. This bound is pessimistic, assuming the adversary can sample strings distributed according to the iris in constant time. Such an algorithm is not known.

— Secure enrollment with multiple services.

— Natural incorporation of a password, enabling multifactor authentication. The structure of the construction allows the overall security to be sum of the security of each factor (increasing security to 79 bits).

Environmentally Keyed Malware

Our paper (with Jeremy Blackthorne, Ben Kaiser, and Bulent Yener) on how malware authenticates was  published at Latincrypt 2017.  Abstract below:

Abstract: Malware needs to execute on a target machine while simultaneously keeping its payload confidential from a malware analyst. Standard encryption can be used to ensure the confidentiality, but it does not address the problem of hiding the key. Any analyst can find the decryption key if it is stored in the malware or derived in plain view.

One approach is to derive the key from a part of the environment which changes when the analyst is present. Such malware derives a key from the environment and encrypts its true functionality under this key.

In this paper, we present a formal framework for environmental authentication. We formalize the interaction between malware and analyst in three settings: 1) blind: in which the analyst does not have access to the target environment, 2) basic: where the analyst can load a single analysis toolkit on an effected target, and 3) resettable: where the analyst can create multiple copies of an infected environment. We show necessary and sufficient conditions for malware security in the blind and basic games and show that even under mild conditions, the analyst can always win in the resettable scenario.

Catching MPC Cheaters

Our paper (with Rob Cunningham and Sophia Yakoubov) on augmenting security of MPC will be published at ICITS 2017.  Abstract below:

Abstract: Secure multi-party computation (MPC) protocols do not completely prevent malicious parties from cheating and disrupting the computation. A coalition of malicious parties can repeatedly cause the computation to abort or provide an input that does not correspond to reality. We augment MPC with three new properties to discourage cheating. First is a strengthening of identifiable abort, called completely identifiable abort, where all parties who do not follow the protocol will be identified as cheaters by each honest party, even if there are more cheaters than honest parties. The second is completely identifiable auditability, which means that a third party can, given the computation output and its additive share decomposition, determine whether the computation was performed correctly (and who cheated if it was not) by looking at a transcript of the computation.  The third is openability, which means that a distinguished coalition of parties can recover the MPC inputs in the extreme setting when the parties are discovered to have lied about their inputs (e.g. by a real-world event contradicting the output of the MPC).

We construct the first (efficient) MPC protocol achieving these properties.  Our scheme is built on the SPDZ protocol (Damgard et al., Crypto 2012), which leverages an offline (computation-independent) pre-processing phase to speed up the online computation. Our protocol is optimistic: it has the same communication and computation complexity in the online phase as SPDZ when no parties cheat. If cheating does occur, each honest party performs only local computation to identify cheaters.

Our main technical tool is a new locally identifiable secret sharing scheme (as defined by Ishai, Ostrovsky, and Zikas (TCC 2012)) which we call commitment enhanced secret sharing, or CESS. Each CESS share contains an additive share (as in SPDZ), and additionally includes linearly homomorphic commitments to every additive share. Each CESS share also contains the decommitment value for the commitment to the corresponding additive share. These commitments enable local identification during reconstruction; by the binding property of the commitment scheme, no party should be able to convince any other party of the validity of an altered additive share.  CESS enables MPC with completely identifiable abort; all parties whose claimed output shares do not match their output share commitments are identified as cheaters.

The work of Baum, Damgard, and Orlandi (SCN 2014) introduces the concept of auditability, which allows a third party to verify that the computation was executed correctly, but not to identify the cheaters if it was not.  We enable the third party to identify the cheaters by augmenting the scheme of Baum, Damg{\aa}rd, and Orlandi with CESS. We add openability through the use of verifiable encryption and specialized zero-knowledge proofs.

SoK: Cryptographically Protected Database Search

Excited to announce that our paper on protected database search will be appear at 2017 IEEE Security and Privacy.

Joint work with Mayank Varia, Arkady Yerukhimovich, Emily Shen, Ariel Hamlin, Vijay Gadepally, Richard Shay, John, Darby Mitchell, and Robert K. Cunningham

Abstract:

Protected database search systems cryptographically isolate the roles of reading from, writing to, and administering the database. This separation limits unnecessary administrator access and protects data in the case of system breaches. Since protected search was introduced in 2000, the area has grown rapidly; systems are offered by academia, start-ups, and established companies.

However, there is no best protected search system or set of techniques. Design of such systems is a balancing act between security, functionality, performance, and usability. This challenge is made more difficult by ongoing database specialization, as some users will want the functionality of SQL, NoSQL, or NewSQL databases. This database evolution will continue, and the protected search community should be able to quickly provide functionality consistent with newly invented databases.

At the same time, the community must accurately and clearly characterize the tradeoffs between different approaches. To address these challenges, we provide the following contributions:

1) An identification of the important primitive operations across database paradigms. We find there are a small number of \emph{base} operations that can be used and combined to support a large number of database paradigms.

2) An evaluation of the current state of protected search systems in implementing these base operations. This evaluation describes the main approaches and tradeoffs for each base operation. Furthermore, it puts protected search in the context of unprotected search, identifying key gaps in functionality.

3) An analysis of attacks against protected search for different base queries.

4) A roadmap and tools for transforming a protected search system into a protected database, including an open-source performance evaluation platform and initial user opinions of protected search.